Columbia (American Minerva) and the Fasces in “Reconstruction” for Equal Rights (1868), Harper’s Weekly | Artist Thomas Nast

“Reconstruction” by German-born American political cartoonist, Thomas Nast illustrates the Southern states being brought back into order with the North into the ancient symbol of collective power and fraternity, the fasces, and the nation’s motto, E Pluribus Unum (“Out of Many, One”). The symbolism of Columbia (America) depicted in Thomas Nast’s cartoon illustrations are highly Continue reading Columbia (American Minerva) and the Fasces in “Reconstruction” for Equal Rights (1868), Harper’s Weekly | Artist Thomas Nast

James Madison on Divine Ideal in American Republicanism | Federalist Papers No. 55

James Madison, lead drafter of the Constitution stated once, that the philosophy of American Republicanism admits the existence of qualities in man in a higher degree, i.e., built on a spiritual Ideal of man’s nature. This is in keeping with Classical Republicanism. We recognize James Madison as a man who rejected the idea of racial superiority, Continue reading James Madison on Divine Ideal in American Republicanism | Federalist Papers No. 55