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“Heaven has cast us off” – Tsu-li to King Zhou of Shang in the Shujing

Tsu-li announces to king Zhou-xin (the last emperor of Shang dynasty), that Heaven has abandoned him, because of his dissolute way.

“Heaven is bringing an end to the Mandate of our dynasty. (…) It is not that the former kings do not aid us, but by your dissoluteness and sport you bring on the end yourself. Heaven has cast us off…” (Tsu-li to King Zhòu Xīn, last king of the Zhòu or Shāng dynasty, Shujing 書經, The Annals of China, also known as the Book of Documents, or Classic of History, IV.X.I & II)

“Yea, our people now all wish the dynasty to perish, saying, ‘Why does not Heaven send down its indignation? Why does not someone with its great decree make his appearance? What has the present king to do with us?’”


[1] Zisi on Virtue and Accountable Actions, Doctrine of the Mean and [2] Mencius on Ending the Unrighteous, The Works of Mencius

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